SNiP 3.01.01-85*

Construction Norm in English SNiP 3.01.01-85*

СНиП на английском языке SNiP 3.01.01-85*

SCOPE AND CONTENTS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECT
1. The construction project must be developed for the whole quantity of construction envisaged in the design. If a project is constructed in phases, the construction project for the first phase must be devised taking into account the full construction development.

2. The scope of the construction project shall comprise:
a) a construction calendar plan specifying the time frame and priority of the construction of main and auxiliary buildings and structures, process nodes and work stages, start-up or municipal engineering packages with the distribution of investments and quantities of civil and erection works by buildings and structures, and construction stages (Appendix 3, Form 1). The preparatory stage calendar plan shall be drawn up separately to show the distribution of works on a monthly basis; b) general construction arrangement plans for the preparatory and the main construction periods showing the arrangement of permanent buildings and structures, the locations of temporary, including mobile (knock-down) building and structures, permanent and temporary railways and roads and other paths for the transportation of equipment (including heavy-weight and large-sized items), constructions, materials and products; paths for the moving of heavy cranes; utilities, locations for connection of temporary services (utilities) to the existing utilities indicating the sources for supply of the construction site with power, water, heat, and steam; storage yards; main erection cranes and other construction machinery and mechanized plants; existing structures and those to be torn down, locations for beacons fixing the staking out axes of buildings and structures. In cases, when organizational and technical solutions involve the territory beyond the construction site, in addition to the general construction arrangement plan, a construction layout shall be devised as well to show the location of materials supply enterprises and quarries, construction camps, external paths and roads (indicating their lengths and traffic capacity), railway terminals connecting to the Ministry of Railways’ tracks, river and sea jetties, communications and power lines, transportation schemes for the delivery of building materials, constructions, parts and equipment, the boundaries of the facility under construction site and adjacent areas of existing buildings and structures, the areas where woods will be cut and the areas being assigned for the construction needs on a temporary basis; c) organizational process flow charts specifying the optimum sequence of the installation of buildings and structures and indicating the technological sequence of the works; d) a bill of scope of the main civil, erection and special construction works specified in the design and cost estimate documentation, breaking down the works into the main buildings and structures, start-up or municipal engineering packages and construction stages (Appendix 3,
Form 2); e) a schedule of requirement for structures, products, materials and equipment showing the distribution throughout the calendar periods of construction. This schedule shall be drawn up both for the construction project at large and for the main buildings and structures, given the quantities of works and the applicable building material consumption norms (Appendix 3, Form 3*);
f) a time schedule of requirement for major construction machinery and means of transportation for the project at large drawn up on the basis of physical work quantities, freight transportation quantities and rates of work for the construction machinery and means of transportation;
g) a time schedule of requirement for the construction personnel in the main categories;
h) an explanatory note comprising the following information:
the characterization of the construction conditions and complexity;
the substantiation of the construction methods and the possibility of combining the civil, erection and special construction works, including those to be carried out in winter, indicating the time frame for the execution of seasonal works, and the technical solutions for the installation of complex buildings and structures; if necessary, the information on the time frame of execution, the scope of geodetic works and the requirement for material and human resources for their execution must be represented in the documents envisaged in sub-clauses “a”, “c”, “f” and “g” of this clause; the instructions about the methods of the execution of instrumental structure quality control; labor protection activities; a list of the conditions for conservation of the environment; the substantiation of the requirement for basic construction machinery, equipment, means of transportation, power, steam, water, oxygen, acetylene, compressed air as well as for temporary buildings and structures with the solution for a set of mobile (temporary) buildings and structures and the indication of selected standards designs; a list of major construction organizations with the characterization of their production capabilities; the substantiation of the size and outfit of materials, constructions and equipment storage yards as well as the solutions for the moving of heavy-weight oversized equipment and consolidated civil structures; a list of special auxiliary structures, appliances, arrangements and installations as well as complex temporary structures and utilities, the detailed drawings for which must be devised by
design organizations as part of the detailed drawings for the construction project; the requirements, which must be considered in the detailed drawings in connection with the civil structures and equipment installation methods specified in the construction project; the substantiation of the requirement for construction personnel, accommodation and social services to the construction workers;

SNiP 2.05.06-85*

СНиП на английском языке 2.05.06-85*

SNiP in English 2.05.06-85*

  1. PIPELINE CORROSION PROTECTION
    10.1. Design the means of protection of (underground, surface, aboveground and underwater embedded) steel pipelines against underground and atmosphere corrosion should conform to the provisions of GOST 25812—83* and duly approved regulatory enactments.
    10.2. Corrosion control must assure accident-free (i.e., corrosion-proof) operation of the pipelines, irrespective of the laying mode, throughout their service life.
    UNDERGROUND CORROSION PROTECTION WITH PROTECTIVE
    COATINGS
    10.3. Protection of pipelines (except for above-ground pipelines) against underground corrosion, regardless of the corrosive nature of the ground and the laying zone, must be a combined effort that includes protective coating and electrochemical protection.
    10.4. Specific pipeline laying and running conditions make it worthwhile applying two types of protective coating: enhanced and normal.
    The enhanced type of protective coating should be applied to the liquefied hydrocarbon pipelines, the pipelines of 1020 mm and more in diameter, irrespective of the laying conditions, and also to pipelines of any diameter being laid:
    south of latitude 50 ° north;
    in salty soil areas anywhere in this country (saliniferous, solonetz, solod, takyr (desert soil), sor (saline) etc.);
    in boggy, water-logged, black earth and irrigated soils, as well as in areas of prospective water-supply development;
    in underground passages and in flood plains, and also at rail and motor road crossings, including protective enclosures and in adjoining pipeline segments within projected distances in accordance with Table 3 and Table 4;
    at crossings with various pipelines — 20 m off the crossing point on either side;on the sites of municipal-industrial effluents, land fills and slag dumps; on the sites of stray currents and those of pipelines with a transported product (313К) temperature of 40° С and more;
    on the sites of oil and product pipelines laid within 1000 m of rivers, canals, lakes, and water storage reservoirs, and also of the boundaries of population centers and industrial facilities.
    Protective coatings to use in all other cases are of a normal type.
    PROTECTING ABOVE-GROUND PIPELINES FROM
    ATMOSPHERIC CORROSION
    10.5. The pipelines laid above the ground must be protected from
    atmosphere corrosion with paint and vitreous-enamel coatings, metal plating or grease coatings.
    10.6. Paint coatings must have a total thickness of no less than 0.2 mm and continuity of no less than 1 sq. per thickness.
    Paint coatings should be monitored by a MТ-41NTs (TU 25-06. 2500-83)- type or by a MТ-ЗЗН (TU 25-06.1874-78)-type thickness gauge for thickness, and by a LKD-1m- or „Krona-1Р» (TU 25-06.2515-83)-type spark flaw detector for continuity.
    10.7. The thickness of vitreous-enamel coatings (OST 26-01-1-79) must
    be no less than 0.5 mm, and continuity — no less than 2 sq. per thickness.

SNiP 2.05.06-85

SNiP in English 2.05.06-85*

СНиП на английском языке 2.05.06-85*

5.2. Embedding of pipelines transporting hot products at positive temperature difference in tube metal shall be additionally confirmed by calculation of longitudinal stability of pipelines subjected to compressive temperature stress in accordance with the provisions of Part 8.

5.3. Bottom width of trench shall be no less than:

D + 300 mm — for pipeline diameter of up to 700 mm;

1,5 D— for pipelines diameter 700 mm or more. In case of pipeline diameter 1,200 and 1,400 mm and trench acclivity over 1 : 0,5 the bottom width of trench can be decreased to D+500 mm, where Dis rate diameter of pipeline.

In case of pipeline ballasting, trench width shall ensure that the distance between the ballast and trench wall is no less than 0.2 m.

5.4. In sections of route with rough terrain of water-logged ground pipelines can be laid in special earth mounds, each layer of such mounds is carefully compacted and surface soil subjected to densification. At waterway cross-points the mound body shall have water vents.

5.5. In case of mutual crossing of pipelines the distance between them shall be at least 350 mm and intersection angle shall be no less than 60°.

Pipeline intersection with other pipelines or other utility lines (water supply, sewerage, cables, etc.) shall be designed in accordance with requirements of SNiP ??-89-80.

5.6. Pipelines diameter 1,000 mm or more shall require advance planning of the route. Planning of construction strip in the area of moving dunes shall involve dune cutting to the to the level of inter-dune bed without disturbing naturally compacted ground. After pipelined is laid and filled up the layer of dune sands on top of it and at the distance of at least 10 m from pipeline centerline on both sides shall be stabilized with couplers (neurosin, by-products of cracking bitumen, etc.). After pipelined is laid and filled up the layer of dune sands on top of it and at the distance of at least 10 m from pipeline centerline on both sides shall be stabilized with couplers (neurosin, by-products of cracking bitumen, etc.).

Design of 700 mm or larger diameter pipelines shall indicate both ground elevation and projected pipeline elevations on the longitudinal profile.

5.7. When pipelines is laid and filled-in in rock, gravel or crushed stone soils, at least 10 cm-thick layer of soft soil shall be added. In such case insulation coating shall be protected from damage by covering pipeline with a 20 cm-thick layer of soft soil and application of special agents to ensure protection of insulation coating in the process of filling.

5.8. Design of underground pipelines in areas where type II of soil settlement occurs shall take into account the requirements stated in SNiP  2.02.01-83.

Design of pipelines for type ? soil settlement conditions shall proceed in the manner applied to non-settling soils.

Note: The type of soil settlement and the amount of likely soil settlement shall be established in accordance with the provisions of SNiP 2.02.01-83.

5.9. In case pipeline is laid along terrain inclination of over 20%, anti-erosion screens and barricades made of natural soils (for instance, clay) or man-made materials shall be applied.

5.10. Design of pipelines laid on hills shall stipulate intercepting channels to divert surface water from the pipeline.

5.11. In case it is impossible to avoid settlement of pipeline bed, the pipeline durability and stability calculations shall take account of additional curve stress caused by bed settlement.

5.12. In case active ravines or valleys occur in the vicinity of pipeline route, which might affect safety of pipeline operation, solidification measures shall be stipulated.

5.13. Fixed benchmarks at intervals not exceeding 5 km shall be installed on pipeline route.

Pipeline laying in mountainous conditions

5.14. In mountainous conditions and rough terrain areas pipelines should be laid in river valleys outside flood zone or along watershed sectors, avoiding unstable of steep slopes as well as cloudburst flood areas.

5.15. In landslide zones with low thickness of sliding soil layer underground laying shall stipulate burying pipeline below the sliding plane.

Extended landslide areas shall be bypassed above the sliding slope.

5.16.* At crossings of cloudburst flood zones, as rule, above-ground laying should be applied.

In case of underground laying across cloudburst flood or slope wash pipeline laying shall be executed 0.5 m (from the tube top) lower than the likely bed erosion at 5% probability. In case of crossing slope wash pipeline laying shall be made in curve bypassing the outer edge of the slope wash at the depth, which is lower than the likely erosion within erratic river beds.

Selection of pipeline laying type and design decisions regarding pipeline protection in case of crossing cloudburst flood zones shall ensure reliability of pipelines and performance characteristics.

СНиП 2.05.07-91

СНиП на английском языке 2.05.07-91

SNiP in English

3.94. It should provide track laying of new wooden or new and used concrete ties for internal railways of industrial facilities, according to the table 19*.  Selection of tie type for cases, wherever accepted utilization both new and concrete ties, shall be done, considering the shipping distance and conditions, which are established in the Item 3.95* and 3.96.

3.95*. Concrete ties shall be laid on the tangents and curve sections with radius 350m and more, with circulation of the rolling stock with axial load not more than 265 kN (27 t-f) and without limitation of traffic flow. Used rail ties of I validity group, complying to the above-specified standards, are accepted to be utilized for all approach and internal railways. The II validity group ties can be utilized for all railways, excepted approach and adjacent railways I category and specialized railways for hot freight transportation.

Railway sections, which are assigned for filling in and off of tank-cars and located with the distance less than 25 km from stationary storage reservoirs, to store liquids of air separation or discharge-filling appliance for such products, shall be provided with concrete ties on gravel or crush stone bed.

It should be generally provided wooden ties, which passed bitumen treatment or were treated with other material resistible to hostile environment on the handling sites, wherever corrosive freights are served, and also arrangement of special spouts in the roadbed for corrosive liquid and polluted superficial water removal.

Track laying of concrete ties with different structures, or both concrete and wooden ties in the same rail length is prohibited. Replacement of two-six concrete ties with wooden ties in the screw joint areas is accepted.

The track laying on the approaches to level crossings, switches and iron bridges shall be provided with wooden ties instead concrete ties.

Transition from concrete ties to wooden shall be arranged by method of combined rail length, assembled from concrete and wooden ties. The transition point from one type of the ties to the other shall be located on the distance 6 –6.5 m from rail joints.

3.96. Concrete ties shall not be utilized:

for track laying on portable railways; in the regions with permafrost soils; on over-watered and heaving soils; on handling sites, which are assigned for mass bulk cargo services; on the slopes with angle more than 200/00; in the areas where railway are under impact effects with handling of cargo; on the areas with non-stabilized roadbed and with intensive obstruction; on the railways for slag and metal tipping; in the areas of metal flow and hot workshops; on tangent inlays with length 25m and less, between conjugated curves with radius less than 350 m, switches and girder-type rail crossing with balks.

3.97. Electrical insulation of rails from ties shall be provided with track laying of concrete ties for railways with electric traction and also for sections, equipped with track circuits.

3.98. Concrete switch ties shall be utilized for switches.

Concrete switch ties for switches with frogs, grades 1/5,1/6,1/7,1/9 and from rails R50 and R65 are accepted for track laying on all industrial facilities railways, excluding railways with circulation of rolling stock with axial loads 450 kN and more, and also portable railways and railways with destructed roadbed on heaving soil sections; in the areas of melt and flaming-slag flow; wherever is possible heavy objects falling directly on the railways; and also switches with prevailing traffic in one direction.

Concrete switch ties are necessary to be laid on high quality bed from crush stone and asbestos.

Switches with concrete switch ties on newly constructed railways shall be laid after soil consolidation up to value 0.98 of maximum density determined by method of standard consolidation.

2.11.03-93

СНиП на английском языке 2.11.03-93

SNiP in English 2.11.03-93

1.2 The categories of the buildings and facilities at the crude oil and petroleum products’ storage tank farms in regard to explosion and fire hazard should be assumed in compliance with the Industry Standards for Process Designing ONTP 24-86, Ministry of Internal Affairs “Determination of the buildings and facilities categories in regard to the explosion and fire hazard”, by in-plant (industry) standards for technology designing, or by special classifications and lists, approved in an established order.

1.3 Tanks, also storage buildings and facilities for keeping crude oil and petroleum products in containers are related to:

underground ones (buried into the soil or covered by soil – underground storage), in case the upper level of the liquid in the tank or the level of the spilled liquid in the storage building or facility is lower not less than 0,2 m of the lowest planned mark at the adjoining site (within the range of 3 m. from tank wall or from building or facility walls);

above-ground (above-ground storage), in case they do not satisfy the above-indicated conditions.

The width of the soil covering shall be determined by calculation of the hydrostatic pressure of the spilled liquid, and in this case the distance from the wall of vertical tank (cylindrical and rectangular) to the fill brow, or from any point of the wall of horizontal (cylindrical) tank to the fill slope should be not less than 3 m.

1.4 Buildings and facilities of petroleum and petroleum tanks should be of I, II or IIIa degree of fire-resistance.

1.5 While performing designing of the buildings and facilities at petroleum and petroleum products’ tanks, the requirements of the appropriate standards, construction standards and regulations should be taken into account, in case they are not stipulated by the present standards, and also by the Industry Standards for Technological and Construction Designing of the appropriate enterprises, approved in the established order.

Besides fire breaks, established by the present standards, when determining distance between buildings & facilities of the crude oil and petroleum products’ storage tank farms and other facilities there should be taken into account the distances, established by other standard documentation, approved in the established order (sanitary, ecological, etc.)