SNiP 3.01.01-85*

Construction Norm in English SNiP 3.01.01-85*

СНиП на английском языке SNiP 3.01.01-85*

SCOPE AND CONTENTS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECT
1. The construction project must be developed for the whole quantity of construction envisaged in the design. If a project is constructed in phases, the construction project for the first phase must be devised taking into account the full construction development.

2. The scope of the construction project shall comprise:
a) a construction calendar plan specifying the time frame and priority of the construction of main and auxiliary buildings and structures, process nodes and work stages, start-up or municipal engineering packages with the distribution of investments and quantities of civil and erection works by buildings and structures, and construction stages (Appendix 3, Form 1). The preparatory stage calendar plan shall be drawn up separately to show the distribution of works on a monthly basis; b) general construction arrangement plans for the preparatory and the main construction periods showing the arrangement of permanent buildings and structures, the locations of temporary, including mobile (knock-down) building and structures, permanent and temporary railways and roads and other paths for the transportation of equipment (including heavy-weight and large-sized items), constructions, materials and products; paths for the moving of heavy cranes; utilities, locations for connection of temporary services (utilities) to the existing utilities indicating the sources for supply of the construction site with power, water, heat, and steam; storage yards; main erection cranes and other construction machinery and mechanized plants; existing structures and those to be torn down, locations for beacons fixing the staking out axes of buildings and structures. In cases, when organizational and technical solutions involve the territory beyond the construction site, in addition to the general construction arrangement plan, a construction layout shall be devised as well to show the location of materials supply enterprises and quarries, construction camps, external paths and roads (indicating their lengths and traffic capacity), railway terminals connecting to the Ministry of Railways’ tracks, river and sea jetties, communications and power lines, transportation schemes for the delivery of building materials, constructions, parts and equipment, the boundaries of the facility under construction site and adjacent areas of existing buildings and structures, the areas where woods will be cut and the areas being assigned for the construction needs on a temporary basis; c) organizational process flow charts specifying the optimum sequence of the installation of buildings and structures and indicating the technological sequence of the works; d) a bill of scope of the main civil, erection and special construction works specified in the design and cost estimate documentation, breaking down the works into the main buildings and structures, start-up or municipal engineering packages and construction stages (Appendix 3,
Form 2); e) a schedule of requirement for structures, products, materials and equipment showing the distribution throughout the calendar periods of construction. This schedule shall be drawn up both for the construction project at large and for the main buildings and structures, given the quantities of works and the applicable building material consumption norms (Appendix 3, Form 3*);
f) a time schedule of requirement for major construction machinery and means of transportation for the project at large drawn up on the basis of physical work quantities, freight transportation quantities and rates of work for the construction machinery and means of transportation;
g) a time schedule of requirement for the construction personnel in the main categories;
h) an explanatory note comprising the following information:
the characterization of the construction conditions and complexity;
the substantiation of the construction methods and the possibility of combining the civil, erection and special construction works, including those to be carried out in winter, indicating the time frame for the execution of seasonal works, and the technical solutions for the installation of complex buildings and structures; if necessary, the information on the time frame of execution, the scope of geodetic works and the requirement for material and human resources for their execution must be represented in the documents envisaged in sub-clauses “a”, “c”, “f” and “g” of this clause; the instructions about the methods of the execution of instrumental structure quality control; labor protection activities; a list of the conditions for conservation of the environment; the substantiation of the requirement for basic construction machinery, equipment, means of transportation, power, steam, water, oxygen, acetylene, compressed air as well as for temporary buildings and structures with the solution for a set of mobile (temporary) buildings and structures and the indication of selected standards designs; a list of major construction organizations with the characterization of their production capabilities; the substantiation of the size and outfit of materials, constructions and equipment storage yards as well as the solutions for the moving of heavy-weight oversized equipment and consolidated civil structures; a list of special auxiliary structures, appliances, arrangements and installations as well as complex temporary structures and utilities, the detailed drawings for which must be devised by
design organizations as part of the detailed drawings for the construction project; the requirements, which must be considered in the detailed drawings in connection with the civil structures and equipment installation methods specified in the construction project; the substantiation of the requirement for construction personnel, accommodation and social services to the construction workers;

SNiP 2.05.06-85*

СНиП на английском языке 2.05.06-85*

SNiP in English 2.05.06-85*

  1. PIPELINE CORROSION PROTECTION
    10.1. Design the means of protection of (underground, surface, aboveground and underwater embedded) steel pipelines against underground and atmosphere corrosion should conform to the provisions of GOST 25812—83* and duly approved regulatory enactments.
    10.2. Corrosion control must assure accident-free (i.e., corrosion-proof) operation of the pipelines, irrespective of the laying mode, throughout their service life.
    UNDERGROUND CORROSION PROTECTION WITH PROTECTIVE
    COATINGS
    10.3. Protection of pipelines (except for above-ground pipelines) against underground corrosion, regardless of the corrosive nature of the ground and the laying zone, must be a combined effort that includes protective coating and electrochemical protection.
    10.4. Specific pipeline laying and running conditions make it worthwhile applying two types of protective coating: enhanced and normal.
    The enhanced type of protective coating should be applied to the liquefied hydrocarbon pipelines, the pipelines of 1020 mm and more in diameter, irrespective of the laying conditions, and also to pipelines of any diameter being laid:
    south of latitude 50 ° north;
    in salty soil areas anywhere in this country (saliniferous, solonetz, solod, takyr (desert soil), sor (saline) etc.);
    in boggy, water-logged, black earth and irrigated soils, as well as in areas of prospective water-supply development;
    in underground passages and in flood plains, and also at rail and motor road crossings, including protective enclosures and in adjoining pipeline segments within projected distances in accordance with Table 3 and Table 4;
    at crossings with various pipelines — 20 m off the crossing point on either side;on the sites of municipal-industrial effluents, land fills and slag dumps; on the sites of stray currents and those of pipelines with a transported product (313К) temperature of 40° С and more;
    on the sites of oil and product pipelines laid within 1000 m of rivers, canals, lakes, and water storage reservoirs, and also of the boundaries of population centers and industrial facilities.
    Protective coatings to use in all other cases are of a normal type.
    PROTECTING ABOVE-GROUND PIPELINES FROM
    ATMOSPHERIC CORROSION
    10.5. The pipelines laid above the ground must be protected from
    atmosphere corrosion with paint and vitreous-enamel coatings, metal plating or grease coatings.
    10.6. Paint coatings must have a total thickness of no less than 0.2 mm and continuity of no less than 1 sq. per thickness.
    Paint coatings should be monitored by a MТ-41NTs (TU 25-06. 2500-83)- type or by a MТ-ЗЗН (TU 25-06.1874-78)-type thickness gauge for thickness, and by a LKD-1m- or „Krona-1Р» (TU 25-06.2515-83)-type spark flaw detector for continuity.
    10.7. The thickness of vitreous-enamel coatings (OST 26-01-1-79) must
    be no less than 0.5 mm, and continuity — no less than 2 sq. per thickness.

SNiP 2.05.06-85

SNiP in English 2.05.06-85*

СНиП на английском языке 2.05.06-85*

5.2. Embedding of pipelines transporting hot products at positive temperature difference in tube metal shall be additionally confirmed by calculation of longitudinal stability of pipelines subjected to compressive temperature stress in accordance with the provisions of Part 8.

5.3. Bottom width of trench shall be no less than:

D + 300 mm — for pipeline diameter of up to 700 mm;

1,5 D— for pipelines diameter 700 mm or more. In case of pipeline diameter 1,200 and 1,400 mm and trench acclivity over 1 : 0,5 the bottom width of trench can be decreased to D+500 mm, where Dis rate diameter of pipeline.

In case of pipeline ballasting, trench width shall ensure that the distance between the ballast and trench wall is no less than 0.2 m.

5.4. In sections of route with rough terrain of water-logged ground pipelines can be laid in special earth mounds, each layer of such mounds is carefully compacted and surface soil subjected to densification. At waterway cross-points the mound body shall have water vents.

5.5. In case of mutual crossing of pipelines the distance between them shall be at least 350 mm and intersection angle shall be no less than 60°.

Pipeline intersection with other pipelines or other utility lines (water supply, sewerage, cables, etc.) shall be designed in accordance with requirements of SNiP ??-89-80.

5.6. Pipelines diameter 1,000 mm or more shall require advance planning of the route. Planning of construction strip in the area of moving dunes shall involve dune cutting to the to the level of inter-dune bed without disturbing naturally compacted ground. After pipelined is laid and filled up the layer of dune sands on top of it and at the distance of at least 10 m from pipeline centerline on both sides shall be stabilized with couplers (neurosin, by-products of cracking bitumen, etc.). After pipelined is laid and filled up the layer of dune sands on top of it and at the distance of at least 10 m from pipeline centerline on both sides shall be stabilized with couplers (neurosin, by-products of cracking bitumen, etc.).

Design of 700 mm or larger diameter pipelines shall indicate both ground elevation and projected pipeline elevations on the longitudinal profile.

5.7. When pipelines is laid and filled-in in rock, gravel or crushed stone soils, at least 10 cm-thick layer of soft soil shall be added. In such case insulation coating shall be protected from damage by covering pipeline with a 20 cm-thick layer of soft soil and application of special agents to ensure protection of insulation coating in the process of filling.

5.8. Design of underground pipelines in areas where type II of soil settlement occurs shall take into account the requirements stated in SNiP  2.02.01-83.

Design of pipelines for type ? soil settlement conditions shall proceed in the manner applied to non-settling soils.

Note: The type of soil settlement and the amount of likely soil settlement shall be established in accordance with the provisions of SNiP 2.02.01-83.

5.9. In case pipeline is laid along terrain inclination of over 20%, anti-erosion screens and barricades made of natural soils (for instance, clay) or man-made materials shall be applied.

5.10. Design of pipelines laid on hills shall stipulate intercepting channels to divert surface water from the pipeline.

5.11. In case it is impossible to avoid settlement of pipeline bed, the pipeline durability and stability calculations shall take account of additional curve stress caused by bed settlement.

5.12. In case active ravines or valleys occur in the vicinity of pipeline route, which might affect safety of pipeline operation, solidification measures shall be stipulated.

5.13. Fixed benchmarks at intervals not exceeding 5 km shall be installed on pipeline route.

Pipeline laying in mountainous conditions

5.14. In mountainous conditions and rough terrain areas pipelines should be laid in river valleys outside flood zone or along watershed sectors, avoiding unstable of steep slopes as well as cloudburst flood areas.

5.15. In landslide zones with low thickness of sliding soil layer underground laying shall stipulate burying pipeline below the sliding plane.

Extended landslide areas shall be bypassed above the sliding slope.

5.16.* At crossings of cloudburst flood zones, as rule, above-ground laying should be applied.

In case of underground laying across cloudburst flood or slope wash pipeline laying shall be executed 0.5 m (from the tube top) lower than the likely bed erosion at 5% probability. In case of crossing slope wash pipeline laying shall be made in curve bypassing the outer edge of the slope wash at the depth, which is lower than the likely erosion within erratic river beds.

Selection of pipeline laying type and design decisions regarding pipeline protection in case of crossing cloudburst flood zones shall ensure reliability of pipelines and performance characteristics.

СНиП 2.05.07-91

СНиП на английском языке 2.05.07-91

SNiP in English

3.94. It should provide track laying of new wooden or new and used concrete ties for internal railways of industrial facilities, according to the table 19*.  Selection of tie type for cases, wherever accepted utilization both new and concrete ties, shall be done, considering the shipping distance and conditions, which are established in the Item 3.95* and 3.96.

3.95*. Concrete ties shall be laid on the tangents and curve sections with radius 350m and more, with circulation of the rolling stock with axial load not more than 265 kN (27 t-f) and without limitation of traffic flow. Used rail ties of I validity group, complying to the above-specified standards, are accepted to be utilized for all approach and internal railways. The II validity group ties can be utilized for all railways, excepted approach and adjacent railways I category and specialized railways for hot freight transportation.

Railway sections, which are assigned for filling in and off of tank-cars and located with the distance less than 25 km from stationary storage reservoirs, to store liquids of air separation or discharge-filling appliance for such products, shall be provided with concrete ties on gravel or crush stone bed.

It should be generally provided wooden ties, which passed bitumen treatment or were treated with other material resistible to hostile environment on the handling sites, wherever corrosive freights are served, and also arrangement of special spouts in the roadbed for corrosive liquid and polluted superficial water removal.

Track laying of concrete ties with different structures, or both concrete and wooden ties in the same rail length is prohibited. Replacement of two-six concrete ties with wooden ties in the screw joint areas is accepted.

The track laying on the approaches to level crossings, switches and iron bridges shall be provided with wooden ties instead concrete ties.

Transition from concrete ties to wooden shall be arranged by method of combined rail length, assembled from concrete and wooden ties. The transition point from one type of the ties to the other shall be located on the distance 6 –6.5 m from rail joints.

3.96. Concrete ties shall not be utilized:

for track laying on portable railways; in the regions with permafrost soils; on over-watered and heaving soils; on handling sites, which are assigned for mass bulk cargo services; on the slopes with angle more than 200/00; in the areas where railway are under impact effects with handling of cargo; on the areas with non-stabilized roadbed and with intensive obstruction; on the railways for slag and metal tipping; in the areas of metal flow and hot workshops; on tangent inlays with length 25m and less, between conjugated curves with radius less than 350 m, switches and girder-type rail crossing with balks.

3.97. Electrical insulation of rails from ties shall be provided with track laying of concrete ties for railways with electric traction and also for sections, equipped with track circuits.

3.98. Concrete switch ties shall be utilized for switches.

Concrete switch ties for switches with frogs, grades 1/5,1/6,1/7,1/9 and from rails R50 and R65 are accepted for track laying on all industrial facilities railways, excluding railways with circulation of rolling stock with axial loads 450 kN and more, and also portable railways and railways with destructed roadbed on heaving soil sections; in the areas of melt and flaming-slag flow; wherever is possible heavy objects falling directly on the railways; and also switches with prevailing traffic in one direction.

Concrete switch ties are necessary to be laid on high quality bed from crush stone and asbestos.

Switches with concrete switch ties on newly constructed railways shall be laid after soil consolidation up to value 0.98 of maximum density determined by method of standard consolidation.

2.11.03-93

СНиП на английском языке 2.11.03-93

SNiP in English 2.11.03-93

1.2 The categories of the buildings and facilities at the crude oil and petroleum products’ storage tank farms in regard to explosion and fire hazard should be assumed in compliance with the Industry Standards for Process Designing ONTP 24-86, Ministry of Internal Affairs “Determination of the buildings and facilities categories in regard to the explosion and fire hazard”, by in-plant (industry) standards for technology designing, or by special classifications and lists, approved in an established order.

1.3 Tanks, also storage buildings and facilities for keeping crude oil and petroleum products in containers are related to:

underground ones (buried into the soil or covered by soil – underground storage), in case the upper level of the liquid in the tank or the level of the spilled liquid in the storage building or facility is lower not less than 0,2 m of the lowest planned mark at the adjoining site (within the range of 3 m. from tank wall or from building or facility walls);

above-ground (above-ground storage), in case they do not satisfy the above-indicated conditions.

The width of the soil covering shall be determined by calculation of the hydrostatic pressure of the spilled liquid, and in this case the distance from the wall of vertical tank (cylindrical and rectangular) to the fill brow, or from any point of the wall of horizontal (cylindrical) tank to the fill slope should be not less than 3 m.

1.4 Buildings and facilities of petroleum and petroleum tanks should be of I, II or IIIa degree of fire-resistance.

1.5 While performing designing of the buildings and facilities at petroleum and petroleum products’ tanks, the requirements of the appropriate standards, construction standards and regulations should be taken into account, in case they are not stipulated by the present standards, and also by the Industry Standards for Technological and Construction Designing of the appropriate enterprises, approved in the established order.

Besides fire breaks, established by the present standards, when determining distance between buildings & facilities of the crude oil and petroleum products’ storage tank farms and other facilities there should be taken into account the distances, established by other standard documentation, approved in the established order (sanitary, ecological, etc.)

SNiP 2.04.02-84

СНиП на английском языке SNiP 2.04.02-84

6.145. The introduction of chlorine-containing reagents for water disinfection shall be performed
in pipes before purified water tanks.
The need to purify ground water shall be determined by agencies of the sanitary-epidemiological service.
Note: When justified, it is permissible to use special contact tanks to support contact of chlorine-containing reagents
with water.
6.146. The dose of active chlorine required to disinfect water shall be established on the basis of
process testing data. If such data are not available, in preliminary calculations for surface water after
filtration a figure of 2-3 mg/L may be used, for water from underground sources 0.7-1 mg/L.
The concentrations of residual free and bonded chlorine shall be taken in accordance with GOST
2874-82.
Note: When water to be used for drinking and domestic purposes is stored in tanks for the period when one of them
is disconnected for washing and repair in cases when the time of contact of the water with chlorine is not provided,
twice the normal dose of chlorine shall be administered. The increased dose of chlorine may be provided by the use
of reserve chlorinators.
6.147. The chlorine section shall support reception, storage and evaporation of liquid chlorine,
measurement of gaseous chlorine to produce chlorine water.
Chlorine water shall be fed separately to each input point.
The chlorine section shall be located in separately standing chlorine facilities, which shall also
contain the service chlorine storage facility, evaporator and chlorine dosing facilities. The service
chlorine storage facility may be located in separate buildings or may be adjacent to the chlorine dosing
and supplementary chlorine section rooms (compressor and ventilator rooms, etc.); it shall be separated
from other rooms by a continuous wall having no openings.
6.148. Service chlorine storage facilities shall be planned in accordance with Paragraphs 6.211
and 6.212. When justified, a separate chlorine storage facility may not be provided; in this case, one
liquid chlorine storage cylinder with a net mass of not over 70 kg may be present in the chlorine dosing
area.
6.149. Chlorine evaporators shall be placed in the chlorine storage facility or chlorine dosing
area. Chlorine shall be evaporated in special evaporators or cylinders (in which the chlorine is delivered).
The temperature of the water fed into the evaporator shall be within the limits of 10-30°C, and
the decrease in water temperature in the evaporator shall be not over 5°C.
The evaporator shall be equipped with devices to monitor the water temperature and the pressure
of the chlorine and water. When gaseous chlorine is fed outside the building, devices shall be installed
after the evaporator to purify the gas, as well as a valve to maintain a vacuum such that the chlorine will
not condense at the lowest ambient air temperature.
The length of the gaseous chlorine pipe shall not exceed 1 km.
6.150. Chlorine dosing facilities without evaporators, located in facilities connected to other
water supply buildings or supplementary chlorine section rooms shall be separated from other rooms by a
continuous wall having no openings and equipped with two external exits, one of which has a double
door. All doors shall open outward. The floor of the chlorine dosing section, if located above other
rooms, shall be impervious to gas. Chlorine dosing sections may not be located in rooms with floors
below ground level.
6.151. Automatic vacuum chlorinators shall be used for chlorine dosing purposes.
The calculated flow rates and heads of water fed to the chlorinator and the pressure of the
chlorine water downstream from the chlorinator shall be determined based on the characteristics of the
chlorinator, as well as its location relative to the point where the chlorine is added.
It is permissible to use a manually controlled chlorinator in which the chlorine feed is monitored
by weight.

SNiP 2.04.12-86

СНиП на английском языке SNiP 2.04.12-86

  1. PIPELINE STRENGTH VERIFICATION
    5.1. Analysis to verify pipeline design is performed after selection of the basic pipeline dimensions
    considering all of the design loads and impacts for all calculated cases.
    5.2. Determination of the forces from calculated loads and impacts arising in individual
    pipeline elements should be performed by construction mechanics methods for analysis of
    statically indeterminate framework systems.
    5.3. Pipeline loading diagram shall reflect the actual conditions of its operation, the
    method of calculation shall consider the possibility of using computers.
    5.4. Pipeline loading diagram shall take into account statically indeterminate planar or
    spatial, simple or branched frameworks of variable rigidity considering interaction of the pipeline
    with its supporting devices and the environment (when laid directly in the soil). The coefficients
    for increase in flexibility of branches and T-joints shall be determined per 5.5 and 5.6.
    5.5. Coefficient of increased flexibility of bent and welded branches kp shall be determined
    as per Table 8.
    The value of kp* shall be taken from Figure 1 depending on the geometric parameter of
    the branch λb and the internal pressure parameter ωb.
    The values of the parameters λb and ωb are determined by the equations:

SNiP 2.04.08-87*

СНиП на английском языке SNiP 2.04.08-87*

4.66. Shut-off devices designed for installation at crossings with water
barriers in accordance with Item 4.58 shall be positioned at elevation not
lower than high water horizon at 10% provision and above level of ice or
stubs and roots movement; at mountainous rivers it shall be positioned not
lower than high water horizon at 2% provision. At looped gas pipelines shutoff devices shall be located of both sides of water barrier and at single dead-end gas pipelines they shall be located on one side before the crossing (along the gas flow).
4.67. Shut-off devices designed for installation at crossings with railroads
shall be located:
on dead-end gas pipelines – not more than 1,000 m from crossing (along
the gas flow);
on looped gas pipelines – on both sides of crossing at the distance of not
more than 1,000 m from the crossing.
GAS PIPELINE INSTALLATIONS
4.68. Wells for installation of shut-off devices shall be made of noncombustible,
wet-proof and biologically stable materials. The design and
material of wells shall rule out penetration of subsoil waters.
External wall surface of wells shall be smooth, plastered and coated with
bitumen-based hydroinsulating materials.
4.69. Encasements shall be designed at places where gas pipeline runs
through well walls.
4.70. Covers installed on concrete, reinforced concrete or other
foundations to ensure stability and rule out soil settlement shall be designed to protect control pipes, terminal leads of control and measuring instruments,
water drain pipes of condensate accumulators, hydraulic locks and valves
from mechanical damage.
4.71. To detect the position of gas pipeline installations, descriptive tables
shall be installed above or near gas pipeline (on walls of buildings or structures or on special poles).
CORROSION PROTECTION
4.72.* Steel gas pipelines shall be protected from corrosion caused by
environmental factors and earth current.
Corrosion protection of underground gas pipelines shall be designed in
accordance with the requirements of GOST 9.602—89 and normative
technical documents approved in conformity with established procedure and provisions of this sub-section.
Material of protective coating shall meet the requirements specified in
Part 11.
4.73.* Within settlements control and measuring points shall be installed
at underground gas pipelines at intervals not exceeding 200 m; outside
settlements such intervals shall not be more than 500 m; at arable lands such intervals shall be established by design. In addition, control and measuring points shall be placed at intersections of gas pipelines with underground gas pipelines of other underground metal-based utility lines (except power cables), rail tracks of electrified transport lines (in case more than two rail tracks are crossed, they shall be placed on both sides of the crossing) and at crossings of gas pipelines across water barriers more than 75 m wide.
At gas pipeline intersections with other gas pipelines or other underground utility lines the need to install control and measuring instruments shall be decided by the design organization in accordance with corrosive conditions.
4.74. Shut-off devices, condensate accumulators and other gas pipeline equipment and installations can be used to measure protective electric potential of gas pipelines.

SNiP 2.05.03-84*

СНиП на английском языке SNiP 2.05.03-84*

3.128. Bends of longitudinal tensional bars by contour of reentrant angles resultant from breakage of element surface are not allowed. Bars of longitudinal reinforcement situated along planes making angle of break shall be extended behind point of their crossing with the length of at least 20 reinforcement diameters.

Anchoring of pretensioned reinforcement

3.129*. When using for structures pretensioned reinforcement of ribbed bars of up to 36mm diameter anchors for rods are not required.

For elements of reinforcement designed for impact all reinforcement (except for specified above) shall have inner and outer (end) anchors.

For pretensioned elements with reinforcement not designed for impact some cables of K-7 class and high-tensile ribbed wires may be used without anchors (inner and outer).

Anchoring strength applied for posttensioned structures shall not be less than strength of anchored reinforcement elements.

3.130. For flexural elements reinforcement anchors shall not be placed in concrete zones with main tensile and compression strength above 90% of maximum values specified for such stress.

3.131*. Outer (end) anchors of beam end face shall be placed as uniform as possible. In doing so solid steel plates covering anchors concrete zone shall be provided at the ends. Plates edges shall be anchored in concrete.

Thickness of covering plates shall be calculated and determined depending on tension forces of prestressing tendons and shall be as follows:

at least 10 mm – for tension force of 590 kN (60 tension force);

at least 20 mm – for tension force of 1180 kN (120 tension force);

at least 40 mm – for tension force of 2750 kN (280 tension force).

For forces different from the specified above thickness of covering plates shall correspond to the nearest value.

3.132. For posttensioned elements concrete zone of outer anchors shall be armored by cross-cut meshes with ribbed rods of at least 10mm diameter and cells up to 10×10 cm. Distance between the meshes shall be up to 10 cm.

Longitudinal reinforcement of elements

3.133*.  In welded reinforcement cages the reinforcements shall be situated in groups up to three rods in each. Rods in groups shall be interconnected by single welding bonding joints. Length of bonding joints between rods shall be at least 4 diameters and its thickness – up to 4 mm. Gaps between groups shall be made by means of longitudinal clips of at least 25 mm diameter. The clips shall be set behind bends with distance between each other of up to 2.5 m in a staggered order. They shall be welded to main reinforcement by single bonding joints of up to 4 mm thickness and length of at least 2 diameters of main reinforcement.

Welding bonding joints between grouped rods shall be done in a staggered order in relation to clips and adjacent bonding joints with clear distance between them of at least 40 cm in case the adjacent joints are on single longitudinal rod and 10 cm if bonding joints are done for different longitudinal rod of the cage. In addition it is required that any cross section of group of rods crosses only one welding joint.

If it is rational vertical rods of welded meshes in walls may be resistance spot welded to reinforcement and longitudinal clips situated between groups of rods. Electrical arc welding of collar clamps to main reinforcement is not allowed.

It is recommended to use reinforcement of As-II class 10 GT grade for cages of main reinforcement.

Details on joints for main reinforcement are specified in item 3.160*.

SNiP 2.04.08-87*

СНиП на английском языке SNiP 2.04.08-87*

4.13.* Minimal horizontal distances from underground and ground-level
(mound) gas pipelines to buildings (except GCS) and installations shall be
designed in accordance to the requirements of SNiP 2.07.01-89. The said distances from GCS buildings to input and output gas pipelines are not subject to regulation. The distances stipulated by SNiP 2.07.01-89 can be reduced by up to 50% in case gas pipeline pressure is below 0.6 MPa (6 kgf/cm2), when pipelines are laid between buildings or under arches, in congested conditions as well as distances from pipelines with pressure above 0.6 MPa (6 kgf/cm2) to detached non-residential or auxiliary buildings.
In such cases, in the reduced distance zones and 5 m in each direction
from those zones the following stipulations shall be made:
Application of seamless or electrically welded pipes subjected to 100%
NDT inspection of welded joint or laying in encasement electrically welded
pipes that were not subjected to such inspection; control of all welded joints by non-destructive testing.
The distance between gas pipeline to external walls of wells or chambers
of other underground utility lines shall be at least 0.3 m. Wherever clear
distance between gas pipeline and external walls of wells or chambers of
other underground utility lines is from 0.3 m to regulatory distance applied to the given line, gas pipelines shall be laid in conformity with the requirements valid for laying pipelines in congested conditions.
In case electrically welded pipes are laid in encasement, the latter shall
protrude at least 2 m to each side from the wall of well or chamber.
The distance from gas pipeline to overhead line towers, street car, trolleybus or electrified railroad contact system shall be designed equal to the distance to poles of power transmission lines of appropriate voltage.
Minimal distances from gas pipelines to longitudinally drained canalless
heat network shall be similar to those applied to canal heat pipelining.
Minimal clear distances from gas pipeline to the nearest heat network pipe laid without canal or drainage shall be equal to those applied to water pipelines.
Distances from anchor poles overshooting the dimensions of heat network
pipes shall be designed to ensure preservation of the latter.
Minimal horizontal distance from gas pipeline to pressure sewage line can
be designed same as applied to water lines.
Distance from gas pipeline to narrow-gage railroad track shall be
designed same as applied to streetcar tracks in accordance with SNiP
2.07.01-89. Distances from gas pipelines to storage of or facilities manufacturing flammable materials shall be designed in accordance with the standards imposed by such facilities but not less than those specified in SNiP 2.07.01- 89. Minimal horizontal and vertical distances from gas pipeline to trunk gas and oil pipelines shall be designed in accordance with the requirements of SNiP 2.05.06-85.
Distances from inter-settlement gas pipelines of 0.6 MPa and higher
pressure to embankment bed or slope edge or, at formation level of public
railroads, outer rail shall not be less than 50 m. Under congested conditions
and subject to agreement of appropriate railroad authorities of the Ministry of Railroads of Russia the said distance can be reduced to the values specified in SNiP 2.07.01-89, provided gas pipeline at such division is laid at the depth of at least 2.0 m, pipe wall thickness is increased by 2 to 3 mm over the rated value and all welded joints are subjected to NDT inspection.

4.14. Two or more gas pipelines can be laid in one trench at one or several levels (step method). Clear distance between gas pipelines shall be sufficient to ensure pipeline installation and maintenance operations.

4.15. Vertical clear distance at intersections of gas pipelines of every pressure with underground utility networks shall be at least 0.2 m; with
regard to power network is shall be in accordance with Operational Code for Electrical Installations (PUE); with regard to cable communication lines and radio transmission networks it shall be in accordance with VSN 116-87 and VSN 600-81 approved by the USSR Ministry of Communications.

4.16. At crossings of underground gas pipelines running above or below heat network canals, communication line channels or canals of various designation gas pipeline shall be laid in encasement protruding 2m on both sides of external walls of the crossed installations and NDT inspection of all welded joints within the crossing zone and at the distance of 5 m from external walls of the crossed installations.
One edge of encasement shall have a control pipe extending under the
protection device.

4.17. Depth of gas pipeline laying shall be at least 0.8 m from the top of
pipeline or encasement.
At locations where no traffic of transport vehicles is supposed to take
place the depth of laying gas pipelines can be reduced to 0.6 m. 4.18. Pipelines transporting wet gas shall be laid below the zone of seasonal frost penetration of ground at not less than 2% inclination towards condensate accumulators.